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 Post subject: Water Purification: Calcium Hypochlorite/'Pool Shock'
PostPosted: Wed Dec 06, 2006 9:04 pm 
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Calcium Hypochlorite

When getting some bleach to have around for emergency water disinfection, do not use granular forms of sodium hypochlorite, unless you know what you are doing, because the stuff is very dangerous in its concentrated powder form and must first be diluted. Also, many granular household bleaches either are different chemicals or contain other chemicals so do not use them and consider them poisonous. NOTE: if you want a dry source of chlorine use calcium hypochlorite, as discussed further below. (Source, Unknown ... but Great advice!!)

Should you want a lot of chlorine based product, or want some that will not go bad any where near as fast, get dry calcium hypochlorite [Ca(ClO)2]. You should be able to get it from nearly any swimming pool or spa provider or a specialty chemical house. Swimming pool chemical providers often sell it labeled as HTH (for "high-test hypochlorite") or "pool shock." Make sure you are getting pure calcium hypochlorite with nothing else added, i.e. no anti-fungals or clarifiers, etc.

Pure calcium hypochlorite provides a minimum of 65% available chlorine. Calcium Hypochlorite is not hygroscopic (does not attract water), is practically clear in a water solution, and is a stable chlorine carrier. It is rarely available in small quantities so transfer it into smaller 1 lb plastic containers that can be tightly sealed.

! BE SURE TO CAREFULLY READ AND FOLLOW ALL HANDLING DIRECTIONS AND HEED ALL WARNINGS. It is always a good idea to be using calcium hypochlorite in an EXTREMELY well ventilated area, (i.e.OUTSIDE!). If calcium hypochlorite becomes contaminated by foreign substances it can cause combustion. Do not breathe the dust or get it in your eyes. This stuff is not Play Dough.

For granular calcium hypochlorite, 1oz = 50ml = 10.1 teaspoons

To treat clear raw water with 65-70% calcium hypochlorite there are a couple of ways to do it. If you want to directly treat the water with calcium hypochlorite use the following:

1 Gallon: add one grain, about the size of the period at the end of this sentence.
55 Gallons: add 1/8 teaspoon for a 5ppm solution.
400 Gallons: add 1 level teaspoon for a 5ppm solution.

To make a 5% chlorine solution to be able to use the drop method for disinfecting water, add and dissolve add ½ teaspoon of 65-70% calcium hypochlorite to ¾ cup of water. This will decay at the same rate of purchased 5.25% bleach so don't make more than you will use in a fairly short time.

Here is a detailed conversion chart for using calcium hypochlorite.
http://chppm-www.apgea.army.mil/documen ... ftTBMED577).pdf

Remember, you want a residual, after treating, concentration of about 0.5 ppm so get some pdp test material.

Get a plastic ½ teaspoon and 1 pint - 1 qt plastic bottle and store with your calcium hypochlorite.

1 pound of calcium chloride will treat about 65,000 gallons of water at an initial 5 ppm concentration.

Calcium hypochlorite has the major benefit of extended shelf life. Providing it is kept dry, cool and in an airtight container, it may be stored up to 10 years with minimal degradation. If you want to keep chlorine in larger quantities or for a long time, this is the item to store.

Send me an e-mail (pfwag@lycos.com) if you want the complete (free) Water Report ~95 pages.
Source: http://planforpandemic.com/viewtopic.php?t=3650
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
What is the shelf life of Calcium hypochlorite?
Calcium Hypochlorite can be stored for 10 years if kept cool and dry.

Pool Shock is calcium hypochlorite. Google it. Get only 65-70% grade with no other chemicals.
Source: http://planforpandemic.com/viewtopic.php?t=3650
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Quote:
Quote:
BE SURE TO CAREFULLY READ AND FOLLOW ALL HANDLING DIRECTIONS AND HEED ALL WARNINGS. It is always a good idea to be using calcium hypochlorite in an EXTREMELY well ventilated area, (i.e.OUTSIDE!). If calcium hypochlorite becomes contaminated by foreign substances it can cause combustion. Do not breathe the dust or get it in your eyes. This stuff is not Play Dough.



Big, Bid Ditto. As part of my SWAT training I saw a demo of what this stuff can do. It is especially volatile with petroleum biproducts - like brake fluid, oil and all the other stuff you keep on the shelf just above the pool chemicals. All it takes is a leak, or an accidental spill and you can kiss your house goodbye.
Source: http://planforpandemic.com/viewtopic.php?t=3650
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[snip] .....you can really get a nasty wiff of this stuff. Burns your throat and eyes...[snip]
Source: http://planforpandemic.com/viewtopic.php?t=3650
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
If the smell/taste of the chlorine is all you find objectionable, this can be removed by letting the chlorinated water "stand" and evaporate some chlorine several hours, or aerating the water by pouring it back and forth between two containers for a while to liberate some of the chlorine. So you do not need to filter the water unless you want to. Source: Bruss01,Avian Flu Talk, http://www.avianflutalk.com/forum_posts ... D=963&PN=2
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Last edited by Readymom on Thu Mar 28, 2013 7:37 pm, edited 2 times in total.
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 Post subject: Treat your water in two steps!
PostPosted: Thu Dec 07, 2006 6:43 pm 
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The following is an explanation of why you should filter your water FIRST, using one of the filters noted in other posts, and THEN use your chlorine to complete the purification process of your water:

Note: THis guideline will be cross-posted in the appropriate Chlorine threads. -Admin

It may be a good idea, if you are planning on using chlorine or other chemical disinfectants, to use an activated carbon filter prior to use to filter out the resultant chlorine and carcinogenic THM's.

Please see below:

Disinfection

Disinfection with aggressive chemicals like chlorine or ozone is normally the last step in purifying drinking water. Water is disinfected to destroy any pathogens which passed through the filters. Possible pathogens include viruses, bacteria including Escherichia coli and Shigella, and protozoans including Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium. Many water systems intentionally leave residual disinfection agents in the water after exiting the plant so it travels throughout the distribution system. The most common disinfection method is some form of chlorine such as chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite, chloramine or chlorine dioxide. The water and chemical mix are allowed to sit in a large tank, called a clear well. The water must sit in the clear well to ensure that the water is in contact with the disinfectant for a minimum amount of time because it takes time to inactivate the harmful microbes. Chlorine is a strong oxidant that kills many microorganisms and remains in the water to provide continuing disinfection. Other disinfection methods include using ozone which acts very rapidly or Ultra Violet light that is almost instantaneous also inactivate pathogens.

Chlorine gas and sodium hypochlorite are the most commonly used disinfectants, because they are inexpensive and easy to manage. They are effective in killing bacteria, but have limited effectiveness against protozoans that form cysts in water (Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium, both of which are pathogenic). Chlorine gas and sodium hypochlorite both have strong residuals in the water once it enters the distribution system.

The main drawback in using chlorine gas or sodium hypochlorite is that these react with organic compounds in the water to form potentially harmful levels of the chemical by-products trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids, both of which are carcinogenic and regulated by the U.S. EPA. The formation of THMs and haloacetic acids is minimized by effective removal of as many organics from the water as possible before disinfection and/or by adding ammonia immediately after chemical disinfection is completed. Formerly, it was common practice to chlorinate the water at the beginning of the purification process, but this practice has mostly been abandoned to minimize the production of THMs.

Chloramines are not as effective disinfectants compared to chlorine gas or sodium hypochlorite, but do not form THMs or haloacetic acids. They are typically used only in stored and distributed treated water. An example of this sort is proceeses using ozone for primary disinfection which is very quickly accomplished then using monochloramine to create a residual level of disinfectant in the water. Chlorine dioxide is another rapid acting disinfectant against bacteria but unlike ozone it leaves a long lasting residual in the water. Despite these beneficial characteristics, it is rarely used because it may creates excessive amounts of chlorate and chlorite, both of which are regulated to low allowable levels.

Source: http://www.avianflutalk.com/forum_posts.asp?TID=963


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 Post subject:
PostPosted: Thu Dec 07, 2006 7:36 pm 
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:?: Got a question about pool shock. I bought some in 1 pound bags, the label states that it is 68% calcium hypochlorite, 32% inert ingredients. The minimum available chlorine is 65%. Now my questions about the inert ingredients, just what are they and are they harmful for water storage purposes? Thanks in advance.

:arrow: Inert ingredients (II) are just that. Many times II are added to prevent clumping or to aid in manufacturing. II are not harmful nor reactive (ergo inert).

Source: http://www.avianflutalk.com/forum_posts ... D=963&PN=3


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 Post subject: Thanks to Corky52 at Planforpandemic for this information.
PostPosted: Thu Dec 14, 2006 4:10 pm 
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Pool "Dry chlorine, also called calcium hypochlorite has the added benefit of extended shelf life. Providing it is kept dry, cool and in an airtight container, it may be stored up to 10 years with minimal degradation. If you want to keep chlorine in larger quantities, this is the item to store . It must be at least 65% calcium hypochlorite, no addtional anti-fungals or clarifiers. In an EXTREMELY well ventilated area, (Hint: OUTSIDE!) add and dissolve one heaping teaspoon of high-test granular calcium hypochlorite (approximately 1/4 ounce) for each two gallons of water. Five pounds of dry pool bleach costs about $10-15, which will make about 92 gallons of bleach, which will sterilize 706,560 gallons of clear water, or 353,280 gallons of cloudy water.

Once mixed use like standard Chlorine bleach. After six month throw out and mix a new batch to keep maximun stregnth.


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 Post subject: Dry 68% Calcium Hypochlorite Granules
PostPosted: Fri Feb 16, 2007 3:48 am 
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How to Find Water and Make It Safe to Drink
Copyright © 1998, 2006 by
Robert Wayne Atkins, P.E.

http://www.grandpappy.info/wwater.htm

Dry 68% Calcium Hypochlorite Granules
This is the shock treatment chemical used in swimming pools.
Kills Bacteria and Viruses.
Not effective against all Protozoa.
Does Not Neutralize Harmful Chemicals or Radioactive Particles.


The water should not be too cool. The water temperature should be 70°F or higher. If necessary, put the water in direct sunlight to raise the water temperature. The effectiveness of chlorine at killing pathogens diminishes rapidly at lower temperatures.

Put 1/96 of an ounce (a pinch between thumb and finger) of 68% Calcium Hypochlorite granules into one gallon of water. Wait one-hour. If you can detect a faint chlorine smell in the water, then it is safe to drink. If you can't smell the chlorine, then add another “pinch” and wait another hour. If you can detect a faint chlorine smell, then the water is safe to drink. If you still can't detect the smell of chlorine, then discard the water because it contains too many germs. (Note: Always start with a small amount of Calcium Hypochlorite and add a little more if necessary. Too much chlorine is harmful to your body.)

The shelf life of liquid bleach (sodium hypochlorite) is much shorter than the dry 68% Calcium Hypochlorite granules. Therefore, if you wish to store hypochlorite for emergency purposes, the best choice is the dry granules.

Liquid Bleach: If you have dry 68% Calcium Hypochlorite granules, and for some reason you need liquid bleach, then you may dissolve one-ounce of 68% granules in one-pint of water and you will have a 5.25% liquid bleach solution.


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 Post subject: Re: Water Purification: Calcium Hypochlorite/'Pool Shock'
PostPosted: Mon Jun 21, 2010 3:40 pm 
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MORE Information:

Image Original post by "MrDanB" at American Preppers Network:

I have a Berkey water system and love it, but it's not a fast unit and I may not always have it with me... I was looking for emergency water treatment online and came up with this:

Better than Bleach: Use Calcium Hypochlorite to Disinfect Water
http://readynutrition.com/resources/bet ... _19062010/

June 19th, 2010
This article was originally posted at Survival Topics

Many ourdoorsmen, survivalists, and households preparing for emergency disasters rely upon common household bleach as a disinfecting agent to make water safe to drink.

Bleach will destroy most (but NOT all!) disease causing organisms (boiling water to make it safe to drink is always the best method).

What is not well known is Calcium Hypochlorite is far better for chemically disinfecting water. --- continued at link, above --- Copyright ReadyNutrition 2009, 2010. All Rights Reserved. ---


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 Post subject: Water Purification: Calcium Hypochlorite/'Pool Shock'
PostPosted: Sun Mar 13, 2011 8:30 pm 

Joined: Sun Mar 13, 2011 8:24 pm
Posts: 1
To readymom

Thank you for this wonderful article. I loved it so much that I bought a dozen pack of pool shock.
I still don't understand how to use them because everyone has a different formula. For starters can you clarify which fo these 2 statements you made were the most accurate? Thank you so much for helping me demystify this.

"1 Gallon: add one grain, about the size of the period at the end of this sentence."
VS
"Put 1/96 of an ounce (a pinch between thumb and finger) of 68% Calcium Hypochlorite granules into one gallon of water. Wait one-hour. If you can detect a faint chlorine smell in the water, then it is safe to drink. If you can't smell the chlorine, then add another “pinch” and wait another hour. If you can detect a faint chlorine smell, then the water is safe to drink. If you still can't detect the smell of chlorine, then discard the water because it contains too many germs. (Note: Always start with a small amount of Calcium Hypochlorite and add a little more if necessary. Too much chlorine is harmful to your body.)"


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 Post subject: Re: Water Purification: Calcium Hypochlorite/'Pool Shock'
PostPosted: Sat Mar 19, 2011 2:26 am 

Joined: Sat Mar 19, 2011 2:14 am
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OK. Now I am completely confused. Check this out. I'm gonna quote from this post so here it is.

Quote #1:
Liquid Bleach: If you have dry 68% Calcium Hypochlorite granules, and for some reason you need liquid bleach, then you may dissolve one-ounce of 68% granules in one-pint of water and you will have a 5.25% liquid bleach solution.

Quote#2:
To make a 5% chlorine solution to be able to use the drop method for disinfecting water, add and dissolve add ½ teaspoon of 65-70% calcium hypochlorite to ¾ cup of water. This will decay at the same rate of purchased 5.25% bleach so don’t make more than you will use in a fairly short time.

If you look at these conversions, they are soooooo different!!! I have no idea which is the correct mixture.

3/4 cup is 6 oz of water and it says use 1/2 tsp HTH. Ok
Now, 1 pint of water is 16 oz(I think) and it says use one ounce of HTH. Now whether it is one ounce volume(30ml) or by weight("1oz=50ml=10.1tsp") its a BIG difference right?


Am I just nuts or do I have a reason to be confused here?

Can anyone help out? The links for the conversion chart are outdated and I can't find one anywhere.

Does anyone have any input or better yet any real "formulas" to figure out how to get 5 ppm(for purification)?

It's been so long since I used math like this my head is hurting. I'm not sure is the 5.25%(for cholrine bleach) is 5.25% weight/volume or a 5.25% liquid volume.
Also, this "stock solution" everyone posts about, what is the strength of it in % and ppm.

Thanks for any help u may have.


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 Post subject: Re: Water Purification: Calcium Hypochlorite/'Pool Shock'
PostPosted: Sat Mar 19, 2011 7:11 pm 
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A half teaspoon of Calcium Hypochlorite granules and a gallon of water will create a gallon of 6% bleach. Shake well several times during the resting time of 30 minutes. When you have created this solution then can use it as follows:

To use household bleach for disinfecting water add 2 drops of bleach per quart or 8 drops per gallon of water, stir well then let the mixture stand for 30 minutes before drinking.

Before drinking or cooking sniff test the water, a faint bleach smell should be present, if no bleach smell is present re-treat the water, wait 15 minutes and sniff test again. Repeat as necessary but normally one treatment works for clean water.

If the water is cloudy or muddy with suspended particles:
First filter the water as best you can then double the amount of bleach you add to the water, use 16 drops per gallon of water or 4 drops to 1 quart.

What you were reading above looks to create a concentrated bleach solution not standard bleach (3/4 cup of water)

The statement about the size of the period I believe would create a disinfecting solution not a sterilizing solution

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 Post subject: Re: Water Purification: Calcium Hypochlorite/'Pool Shock'
PostPosted: Sat Mar 19, 2011 9:52 pm 

Joined: Sat Mar 19, 2011 2:14 am
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Yah so that right there is my problem. According to a previous post, the 1/2 tsp to 3/4 cup water was supposed to be used for the "drop technique" with 8 drops per gallon. According to the same post the 1/2 tsp to 3/4 cup was supposed to make the standard 5.25-5.5% bleach too. I hope you cam understand my confusion because now I have 3 formulas to make the 5-6% bleach solution. Hmmmm. Do you have any comments regarding the other posts? Are they just plain wrong?
Still confused here. Thanks for your help.


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 Post subject: Re: Water Purification: Calcium Hypochlorite/'Pool Shock'
PostPosted: Sat Apr 02, 2011 2:59 am 

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definitely be careful with calcium hypo.. very easy to cause chemical reaction.. keep it away from any other chemicals.

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 Post subject: Re: Water Purification: Calcium Hypochlorite/'Pool Shock'
PostPosted: Mon Apr 04, 2011 10:25 pm 

Joined: Mon Apr 04, 2011 10:22 pm
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I'm confused too! To top it off, the HTH Super Shock I bought says 52% Calcium Hypochlorite! Is that the right stuff??? It's all the had at Walmart other than the regular shock which was 47%.


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 Post subject: Re: Water Purification: Calcium Hypochlorite/'Pool Shock'
PostPosted: Thu Apr 07, 2011 9:00 pm 
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misterbeefy wrote:
I'm confused too! To top it off, the HTH Super Shock I bought says 52% Calcium Hypochlorite! Is that the right stuff??? It's all the had at Walmart other than the regular shock which was 47%.


If 52% is all you could find your going to have to do some math to add the additional powder to get it up to 65-70%

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 Post subject: Re: Water Purification: Calcium Hypochlorite/'Pool Shock'
PostPosted: Fri Jun 24, 2011 6:19 pm 
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VIDEO: Calcium Hypochlorite/'Pool Shock'-for Water Purification

Image 'Sir Jeff' over at Survival HQ (Go there to find more discussion on this topic)
Survival HQ
http://survivalhq.info/index.php?topic= ... 04#msg8404

VIDEO: How to make drinking water. LONGTERM.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8fsKUyOb ... r_embedded

A quote and the link to the EPA website on using Dry bleach:

Quote
You can use granular calcium hypochlorite to disinfect water.
Add and dissolve one heaping teaspoon of high-test granular calcium hypochlorite (approximately ¼ ounce) for each two gallons of water, or 5 milliliters (approximately 7 grams) per 7.5 liters of water. The mixture will produce a stock chlorine solution of approximately 500 milligrams per liter, since the calcium hypochlorite has available chlorine equal to 70 percent of its weight. To disinfect water, add the chlorine solution in the ratio of one part of chlorine solution to each 100 parts of water to be treated. This is roughly equal to adding 1 pint (16 ounces) of stock chlorine to each 12.5 gallons of water or (approximately ½ liter to 50 liters of water) to be disinfected. To remove any objectionable chlorine odor, aerate the disinfected water by pouring it back and forth from one clean container to another.


http://water.epa.gov/drink/emerprep/eme ... ection.cfm

Also some good info here on storage. We keep it in old half gallon jars, the type with the glass lid. It's kept in an out building.

http://www.survivalblog.com/2011/03/let ... ochlo.html


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 Post subject: Re: Water Purification: Calcium Hypochlorite/'Pool Shock'
PostPosted: Fri Jun 24, 2011 6:25 pm 
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Chemical Treatment: calcium hypochlorite

Image

You can use granular calcium hypochlorite to disinfect water.
http://water.epa.gov/drink/emerprep/eme ... ection.cfm

You can use granular calcium hypochlorite to disinfect water.

Add and dissolve one heaping teaspoon of high-test granular calcium hypochlorite (approximately ¼ ounce) for each two gallons of water, or 5 milliliters (approximately 7 grams) per 7.5 liters of water. The mixture will produce a stock chlorine solution of approximately 500 milligrams per liter, since the calcium hypochlorite has available chlorine equal to 70 percent of its weight. To disinfect water, add the chlorine solution in the ratio of one part of chlorine solution to each 100 parts of water to be treated. This is roughly equal to adding 1 pint (16 ounces) of stock chlorine to each 12.5 gallons of water or (approximately ½ liter to 50 liters of water) to be disinfected. To remove any objectionable chlorine odor, aerate the disinfected water by pouring it back and forth from one clean container to another.


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