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 Post subject: Where to Find Emergency Water Sources (Besides your Faucet)
PostPosted: Thu Dec 07, 2006 8:31 pm 
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The following is a post from a member of the Fluwiki Website. Original post can be found here: Source: http://www.flutrackers.com/forum/showth ... 140&t=5668

I work for a state agency assisting the water supply industry for my state. As such, I have access to water treatment plant operators and an understanding of water supply systems. My purpose in telling you this is to establish credibility.

I am definitely not authorized to speak publicly for my agency. HOWEVER, as a Civil Engineer (Professional Engineer) in the business, and as a private citizen, I've made an analysis that I'd like to share with you.

Obviously, there are lots of concerns about how people might contract ordinary flu and other diseases. Let me discuss a transmission route that is LIKELY to occur in the event of a pandemic: namely the public water supply systems.

The water supply system

First, let me describe the supply system. The source of public drinking water is typically surface streams and reservoirs. There are communities, most often in rural settings, that get their water primarily from wells and springs. But the great majority of cities and towns in the USA get at least a portion of their water from surface sources.

Water is piped to the water treatment plant where the water is held, temporarily, in large ponds. The water is taken into the treatment plant where large materials are screened out and then the water is put through a series of filters. These include flocculation, and sand filters that remove even small particles down to bacteria sizes.

However, viruses are so small they cannot be filtered out. That's one of the main reasons for chlorination, along with killing any residual bacteria. State law requires there be "log 4" reduction in virus count. That is, 1/10, 1/100, 1/1,000 down to 1/10,000 reduction in virus count. And every treatment plant tests the water to determine that the log 4 reduction is being achieved.

Test results are routinely submitted to drinking water regulatory agencies. Sometimes during normal operation, treatment plants cannot conform and are required to take corrective actions to regain compliance. See concluding comments below.

During normal day-to-day operations the raw water (term used for water before treatment) contains all the stuff that is in rivers and reservoirs. This includes bird and animal fecal droppings, as well as dead and decaying plant and animal matter. Not a pretty sight, but that's the way it is.

Now, in the USA these plants operate quite well and every day provide people with clean, non-contaminated drinking water. Pretty amazing when you consider the volumes of water -- billions of gallons per day. When was the last time you heard about a water-borne disease outbreak??

What happens in a pandemic

Anyway, now let's consider what happens to this system during a pandemic.

Obvously, there is a concern for sufficient numbers of qualified personnel to properly operate all aspects of the system from pumps, valves, and filters to the chlorination equipment. But here's the "pandemic kicker". Ducks and geese having the disease (recall they shed the virus in large amounts even before becoming symptomatic) deposit their droppings in the streams, reservoirs, and in the holding pond right outside the treatment plant. And, of course, when they die their contaminated bodies float and decompose in those surface water sources.

In addition, sewage treatment plants quite commonly discharge to streams and thus some levels of human excrement also end up in surface water supplies. This too, is ongoing day-to-day. Quite simply, sewage treatment plants do not remove all pathogens or chemicals. This is the source of pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and other "endocrine disruptors".

We all live downstream

Recall the slogan, "we all live downstream". Well, we really do live downstream. So, flu-contaminated human waste is also in the raw water stream that supplies drinking water treatment plants.

Sewage treatment plant effluent is also used in many areas of the country for "water reuse" such as to water golf courses and other "non-contact" (to humans) uses. On a day-to-day basis these human wastes are removed like the other wastes from the drinking water.

So, during a pandemic, the raw water sources contains both bird and human-generated flu virus.

Speaking to the manager of a large water treatment plant, I find the following. During the summer a typical chlorine stockpile for water treatment is no more than one week. Summer means the greatest water demand during June, July and August. The chlorine is delivered to the drinking water via compressed gas bottles. One bank (say 12 cylinders) is on-line while the other bank of 12 is full and waiting to be put on-line. That's a typical hard plumbing hookup. During the winter, when water demand is lower, the bank may last more than one week.

Not if, but when, there is absenteeism at the chlorine generating plant, the chlorine supply will not be there. MAJOR problem! Without chlorine, the flu virus (along with other infectious agents) could be supplied to the public. Unless the water supply is turned off.

To add to credibility of this scenario, I'd direct you to one water supplier, in Denver, that has made plans to prepare for a pandemic scenario. The article makes good reading up until he talks about chlorine, which is beyond his control. These folks have even taken to stockpiling a 30-day supply of chlorine. After that, they face the decision of supplying contaminated water, or shutting off the supply to the public. See the following, which I think I got from your website.

http://www.rockymountainnews.com/drm...626378,00.html

Another pandemic consideration is the length of the flu pandemic. In 12 to 18 months there will be equipment malfunctions in the vast array of equipment throughout the automated system. What breaks and when it breaks could affect the ability to treat the water (water filters through chlorination dispensing) and deliver it (pumps, valves, control systems).

It could be that, after some critical item (or combination of items) breaks, no water will be delivered during a pandemic.

Well, maybe you already knew this stuff. But this supplies some detail of this industry. In my military survival training I learned that water was the most crucial item to life. Recall also that hydration of flu patients is a key item, crucial to their survival. And clean, uncontaminated water could be in seriously short supply to millions of people during a pandemic. Might I suggest individuals seriously consider stockpiling water along with whatever else they do to prepare for a pandemic.

Source: http://www.flutrackers.com/forum/showth ... 140&t=5668


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 Post subject: Emergency Sources of Water
PostPosted: Sat Dec 09, 2006 4:35 pm 
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Emergency Water Sources

In an emergency, if you have not previously stored water and commercial or public sources of water are not available, drain water from your plumbing system. Unless you are advised that the public water supply has been contaminated and is not safe, open the drain valve at the bottom of the water heater and salvage the water stored in the heater. A typical water heater holds 30-60 gallons of water. Discard the first few gallons if they contain rust or sediment. Let the water heater cool before draining it from the heater so it does not scald you. Turn off the electricity or gas to the water heater to prevent the heater from operating without water. Once water has been drained into clean, sanitized containers, add 5-7 drops of chlorine bleach* per gallon of water, and stir or shake the solution to mix it. Let it set 30 minutes before use.
Source: http://planforpandemic.com/viewtopic.php?t=156

Emergency Outdoor Water Sources

If you need to find water outside your home, you can use these sources. Be sure to treat the water first. Additional sources include:

    Rainwater
    Streams, rivers and other moving bodies of water
    Ponds and lakes
    Natural springs


Avoid water with floating material, an odor or dark color. Use saltwater only if you distill it first. You should not drink flood water.

Using Swimming Pool Water
You should always view your pool as ""backup"" water; keep the water treated; you never know when it will be needed! The maintenance of the free chlorine residual will prevent establishment of any microorganisms. The maintenance level should be kept about 3-5ppm free chlorine. (See Water Purification for detailed information on purifying pool water.) If other stored water stocks are not available, remove the necessary pool water and boil it or just treat with chlorine to the normal 5ppm. It is best to err on the side of caution.

Covering the pool at all times when not in use is a very good idea. Try to keep the cover clean and wash the area you put it on when removing it from the pool.

Source: http://planforpandemic.com/viewtopic.php?t=156
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Hidden Water Sources in Your Home

** If a disaster catches you without a stored supply of clean water, you can use the water in your hot-water tank, pipes and ice cubes. As a last resort, you can use water in the reservoir tank of your toilet (not the bowl).

** Do you know the location of your incoming water valve? You'll need to shut it off to stop contaminated water from entering your home if you hear reports of broken water or sewage lines.

To use the water in your pipes, let air into the plumbing by turning on the faucet in your house at the highest level. A small amount of water will trickle out. Then obtain water from the lowest faucet in the house.
To use the water in your hot-water tank, be sure the electricity or gas is off, and open the drain at the bottom of the tank. Start the water flowing by turning off the water intake valve and turning on a hot-water faucet. Do not turn on the gas or electricity when the tank is empty.

Source: http://planforpandemic.com/viewtopic.php?t=156


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 Post subject: From Homeland Security
PostPosted: Thu Dec 14, 2006 3:44 pm 
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Joined: Tue Nov 21, 2006 2:42 pm
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Emergency Sources of Water

http://www.nationalterroralert.com/safewater/

In an emergency, if you have not previously stored water and commercial or public sources of water are not available, drain water from your plumbing system. Unless you are advised that the public water supply has been contaminated and is not safe, open the drain valve at the bottom of the water heater and salvage the water stored in the heater. A typical water heater holds 30-60 gallons of water. Discard the first few gallons if they contain rust or sediment. Let the water heater cool before draining it from the heater so it does not scald you. Turn off the electricity or gas to the water heater to prevent the heater from operating without water. Once water has been drained into clean, sanitized containers, add 5-7 drops of chlorine bleach* per gallon of water, and stir or shake the solution to mix it. Let it set 30 minutes before use. Emergency Outdoor Water Sources If you need to find water outside your home, you can use these sources. Be sure to treat the water first. Additional sources include: Rainwater Streams, rivers and other moving bodies of water Ponds and lakes Natural springs Avoid water with floating material, an odor or dark color. Use saltwater only if you distill it first. You should not drink flood water. Hidden Water Sources in Your Home If a disaster catches you without a stored supply of clean water, you can use the water in your hot-water tank, pipes and ice cubes. As a last resort, you can use water in the reservoir tank of your toilet (not the bowl). Do you know the location of your incoming water valve? You’ll need to shut it off to stop contaminated water from entering your home if you hear reports of broken water or sewage lines. To use the water in your pipes, let air into the plumbing by turning on the faucet in your house at the highest level. A small amount of water will trickle out. Then obtain water from the lowest faucet in the house. To use the water in your hot-water tank, be sure the electricity or gas is off, and open the drain at the bottom of the tank. Start the water flowing by turning off the water intake valve and turning on a hot-water faucet. Do not turn on the gas or electricity when the tank is empty. Using Swimming Pool Water You should always view your pool as “backup” water; keep the water treated; you never know when it will be needed! The maintenance of the free chlorine residual will prevent establishment of any microorganisms. The maintenance level should be kept about 3-5ppm free chlorine. (See Water Purification for detailed information on purifying pool water.) If other stored water stocks are not available, remove the necessary pool water and boil it or just treat with chlorine to the normal 5ppm. It is best to err on the side of caution. Covering the pool at all times when not in use is a very good idea. Try to keep the cover clean and wash the area you put it on when removing it from the pool.


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 Post subject: Water Collection from Rain
PostPosted: Fri Jan 12, 2007 4:39 pm 
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Idea was originally posted by (Eccles) at Fluwiki
http://www.fluwikie2.com/index.php?n=Fo ... RoofRunoff

Since people are asking how to collect rain water without using the roof, here’s a little on how I anticipate doing it. One needs to buy some large plastic or plasticized tarps (they are very cheap) and some metal fence posts (the kind used for chicken wire; they are also very cheap).

In my case, the tarps have eyelets at the corners and in the middle of each edge. We will use these to simply hook the tarp to the fenceposts as follows:

Set 4 fence posts up in a square arrangement to support the corners of the opened tarp, with the “rear” posts holding the tarp up about 3–4 feet off the ground and the “front” posts holding it up about 2 feet off the ground. Then rig additional posts to support the left and right edges. Rig a post to support the middle of the rear edge, and tie a string or rope to the middle eye in the front edge.

This setup will give you a tarp which is angled toward the front, and which has a “Vee” crease down the middle to channel water to the front middle eyelet and edge. You capture the water here with buckets, tubs or anything else you have that will hold water and let you drag it off.

If we use an 8×10 foot tarp, and if we allow for the reduction in capture area caused by the tilting and creasing, we are left with about 70 square feet of capture area. Now, when it rains, we will be able to capture a maximum of 42 gallons per inch of rain.

In other words, multiply 42 by the number of inches and you get the approximate amount of water you could get. With even a tenth of an inch of rain, you could get about 4 gallons this way. You could easily set such an arrangement up in a front yard, back yard or on a driveway.

A smaller tarp will deliver less water, and a larger one more. With a back yard of any size at all, you should be able to run several of these setups (well under $10 each for the materials).

Once you have captured the water, then treat and filter it as has been described in other threads.

You can use this water for drinking and personal washing. Use the downspout water for flushing.


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 Post subject: How to Find Water and Make It Safe to Drink
PostPosted: Fri Feb 16, 2007 3:33 am 
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Joined: Tue Nov 21, 2006 2:42 pm
Posts: 2467
Robert Wayne Atkins, P.E.
http://www.grandpappy.info/wwater.htm

For great information on alternate water sources, go to the above link.
Topics covered include:

Drinking Water Available Immediately

Where to Find More Water
    Well Water
    Rain Water
    The Morning Dew
    Snow or Ice
    Ground Water (or Surface Water)
    Wilderness Areas
    Moving Water or Stationary Water
    When to Collect Ground Water
    Spring Water (doesn't refer to the time of year)
    Water Caught in Rock Depressions
    Dry Spring Bed Water
    Wildlife Watering Holes
    Condensation From Green Leaf Vegetation
    Solar Still


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 Post subject: Re: Water Supplies in a Pandemic (And OTHER Emergencies)
PostPosted: Fri Jul 30, 2010 4:50 pm 
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Joined: Tue Nov 21, 2006 2:42 pm
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OTHER Water Sources if You Run Out

Image

From: EMERGENCY DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES
http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extens ... suppl.html

What if I don't have enough stored water, and run out when I need it?

If supplies run low, never ration drinking water. Drink the amount you need today, and try to find more for tomorrow. You can minimize the amount of water your body needs by reducing your activity level.

Hidden Water Sources in Your Home:

If a disaster catches you without a big enough stored supply of clean water, you can use the water in your hot-water tank, pipes, and ice cubes. As a last resort, you can use water in the reservoir tank of your toilet (not the bowl).

Do you know the location of your incoming water valve? You'll need to shut it off to stop contaminated water from entering your home if you hear reports of broken water or sewage lines, or a failure at the water treatment plant.

To use the water in your pipes, shut off the incoming water valve. Let air into the plumbing by turning on the faucet in your house at the highest level. A small amount of water will trickle out. Then obtain water from the lowest faucet in the house.

To use the water in your hot-water tank, be sure that plumbing fixtures and the water heater are not submerged by flood. Turn the electricity or gas off, and turn off the water intake valve. Start the water flowing by opening the drain at the bottom of the tank and turning on a hot-water faucet. Do not turn on the gas or electricity when the tank is empty.

Waterbeds hold up to 400 gallons of water, but some water beds contain toxic chemicals that are not fully removed by purifiers. If used as an emergency water resource, drain it yearly and refill it with fresh water containing two (2) ounces (1/4 cup) of bleach per 120 gallons of water. Do not add algicides or other additives (with the exception of chlorine bleach) if this water is to be used as a water reserve. Before use, water should be boiled.

Other Sources of Water

If you need to find water outside your home, the only sources may contain harmful bacteria. Be sure to purify the water according to the instructions listed below before drinking it.

Some possible sources are: collected rainwater; streams, rivers and other moving bodies of water; ponds and lakes; and natural springs. Avoid water with floating material, an odor or dark color. Use saltwater only if you distill it first. You should not drink floodwater.


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 Post subject: Re: Water Supplies in a Pandemic (And OTHER Emergencies)
PostPosted: Thu Sep 30, 2010 4:42 pm 
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Joined: Tue Nov 21, 2006 2:42 pm
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Water Source: Vines

Image

Find a Survival Water Source in Vines
http://www.survivalcommonsense.com/water-vinesfeed/

By Peter Kummerfeldt

Editor's Note: Widespread spring flooding has already started in many areas throughout the United States. Maybe you'll be one of the unlucky victims, and find yourself surrounded by a sea of muddy, polluted water that isn't safe to drink. If that's the case, let's hope you have a supply of drinking water available!

Image The knowledge of where to look for pure water under different circumstances, and in different areas and climates is an important part of any survival kit. Sawyer Biological Water Filtration Kit
If you live in the southeastern United States, or in any jungle-like tropical area, here is a tip for finding a drinking water source. Like any survival tip, experiment and check this out before you need it!

Water can be obtained from vines. Water-producing vines varying in size from pencil thickness up to the thickness of an adult man's forearm can be found throughout much of the southeastern United States. --- continued at link, above ---


Last edited by Readymom on Sun Jul 15, 2012 8:59 pm, edited 2 times in total.
formatting & Updated Link


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 Post subject: Re: Water Supplies in a Pandemic (And OTHER Emergencies)
PostPosted: Thu Oct 21, 2010 2:24 pm 
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Water-'Trapped' Water Stored at Home

LDS Preparedness Manual
http://www.green-trust.org/freebooks/Preparedness.pdf

Pages 110

In addition to stored water, there is quite a bit of water trapped in the piping of the average home. If the municipal water system was not contaminated before you shut the
water off to your house, this water is still fit for consumption without treatment. To collect this water, open the lowest faucet in the system, and allow air into the system from a second faucet. Depending on the diameter of the piping, you may want to open every other faucet, to make sure all of the water is drained. This procedure will usually only drain the cold water side, the hot-water side will have to be drained from the water heater. Again, open all of the faucets to let air into the system, and be prepared to collect any water that comes out when the first faucet is opened.

Toilet tanks (not the bowls) represent another source of water if a toilet bowl cleaner is not used in the tank.

Some people have plumbed old water heaters or other tanks in line with their cold water supply to add an always rotated source of water. Two cautions are in order: 1) make sure the tanks can handle the pressure (50 psi min.), and 2) if the tanks are in series with the house plumbing, this method is susceptible to contamination of the municipal water system. The system can be fed off the water lines with a shutoff valve (and a second drain line), preventing the water from being contaminated as long as the valve was closed at the time of contamination. Water can only be realistically stored for short-term emergencies, after that some emergency supply of water needs to be developed


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 Post subject: Re: Emergency Sources of Water
PostPosted: Thu Oct 21, 2010 2:41 pm 
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Surface Water: Creeks,Rivers

LDS Preparedness Manual
http://www.green-trust.org/freebooks/Preparedness.pdf

Page 111

Surface water

Most US residents served by municipal water systems supplied with surface water, and many residents of underdeveloped countries rely on surface water. While surface water will almost always need to be treated, a lot of the risk can be reduced by properly collecting the water. Ideal sources of water are fast flowing creeks and rivers which don’t have large sources of pollution in their watershed. With the small amounts of water needed by a family or small group, the most practical way to collect the water is though an infiltration gallery or well. Either method reduces the turbidity of the collected water making it easy for later treatment.


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